Logan International Airport
|Logan Airside Improvements
|As a key member of the team selected to complete
both an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) and an Environmental Impact Report
the proposed improvement packages, FTA refined the analysis methodology and was
instrumental in developing nine future forecast scenarios for evaluation. The improvement
packages included a new unidirectional commuter runway, major taxiway additions and
enhancements, reduced landing minimums, and a peak hour pricing mechanism. FTA conducted a
series of computer simulations with FLAPS to estimate runway capacity and runway exit
utilization. The Airport Machine (APM) was used to model taxiway activity and delays.
FTA's DELAYSIM produced estimates of runway utilization and aircraft delays for each of the concepts under each
scenario. FTA developed flight tracks for the new runway, analyzed
associated noise impacts, assessed future technology and safety issues,
participated in noise and air quality studies, and helped prepare the FEIR
and FEIS mandated by State and Federal authorities.
|FTA was a member of the Massport teams responsible for preparing the
Generic Environmental Impact Reports and Environmental Status and Planning
Report for Logan Airport.
FTA's overall role was to provide aviation industry expertise in general, and knowledge of
Logan operations in particular. Specific inputs involved future traffic levels, industry
trends, regional context issues, and airfield delays.
|FTA has developed a new preferential runway
advisory system (PRAS) for Boston Logan International Airport. The new system operates 24
hours per day to air traffic controllers with recommended runway configurations which
satisfy weather and wind requirements, recognize runway maintenance needs, accommodate
anticipated demand levels, and still provide short-term and annual noise relief to
surrounding neighborhoods. FTA has continued to maintain and improve the enhanced PRAS at
Logan. Recent efforts have included changes in response to FAA requests, improved handling
of unanticipated inputs, and preparation of new reports for Massport.
|International Gateway EIR
|FTA was member of the consulting team that prepared
both the Environmental Impact Review (EIR) and the Environmental Impact Statement (EIS)
for the planned improvements to the International Terminal at Logan Airport. The project
includes a new and expanded Federal Inspection Services facility as well as a new west
concourse with additional wide-body gates. FTA reviewed current operations (aircraft,
passengers, baggage), and projected future activities in 1999 and 2010 for the proposed
design as well as several alternatives.
|Logan Airfield Improvements
|Logan International Airport has been ranked by the
FAA for several years as one of the worst commercial airports in the US in terns of
delays. FTA was a key member of the consultant team that undertook a detailed analysis of
operational and environmental impacts of a menu of airside improvement concepts. The
projects considered ranged from a new commuter runway, other runway extensions, various
taxiway improvements, and revised operational procedures. FTA developed the methodology
for analyzing operational and environmental impacts of the proposed improvements. Using
FLAPS and DELAYSIM, FTA conducted computer simulations to estimate runway capacity and
delays of the individual concepts, and to produce inputs for the environmental studies.
FTA also predicted the noise impacts of each improvement, using the FAA's Integrated Noise
Model (INM) for airside noise and a proprietary propagation model for ground noise
effects. FTA participated in the selection of recommended improvement packages. Which were
carried forward into a more in-depth Environmental Impact Statement process.
|Milton A/P Noise Comm.
|Under Massport sponsorship, FTA conducted an
evaluation of several issues raised by the Town of Milton Airport Noise Committee (MANC).
The causes for aircraft noise in the town were reviewed, and specific mitigation
recommendations by the MANC were evaluated. The study included arrival and departure
procedures, runway configurations and utilization, airport noise goals and the
preferential runway advisory system, and other factors.
|LAMP Environmental Study
|FTA was a member of the team that prepared the Draft
and Final Generic Environmental Impact Reports (DGEIR and FGEIR) for Logan Airport and the
LAMP improvements. FTA assisted in the assessment of past forecasts for Logan Airport and
the preparation of future projections for the GEIR. FTA provided inputs on regional
transportation opportunities and overall expertise on air transportation issues. FTA
participated in an advisory role in the preparation of several Environmental Notification
Forms (ENFs) for related LAMP projects.
|FTA was retained to develop and
evaluate innovative peak hour pricing concepts for Logan International Airport.
Using accepted practices in the utilities industry for peak load pricing, recommendations
were developed for peak period pricing at the airport. FTA analyzed Logan's demand and delays to develop a
rational and justifiable definition for peak hours. Finally, FTA is applied the DELAYSIM
model to simulate the effects of the proposed pricing structures on airport delays.
|FTA was a member of the F. R. Harris consultant
team that examined the potential impacts of future growth at Boston's Logan International
Airport over the next twenty years. The study objectives were to project the future demand
for services at Logan, and the likely effects of this growth on noise, pollution, traffic
and other aspects of the environment. In Phase I of the project, FTA prepared a
constrained forecast of passengers, movements and cargo/mail for several scenarios. In the second Phase, FTA identified potential future
developments; conducted detailed cumulative and single-event noise analyses of these
alternatives using the FAA Integrated Noise Model. Strategies for controlling the growth
and corresponding impacts were formulated and evaluated. Additional responsibilities
included updating the projected role of Logan in the regional air transportation system,
and a special study of low-frequency
aircraft noise to examine the relative benefits of Stage 3 operations for rumble.
| FTA developed a new preferential runway
advisory system (PRAS) for Boston Logan International Airport. The first phase included
the evaluation of system requirements, updating the noise impacts using the FAA Integrated
Noise Model, formulation of logic and algorithms to balance noise and capacity,
preparation of a simulation to evaluate the feasibility of the system, and definition of
design specifications for the hardware and software. Phase 2 involved
hardware procurement, software implementation, testing, and installation at Logan for the
FAA air traffic controllers' use. The new system operates 24/7 to recommend
runway configurations which satisfy weather and wind requirements, recognize runway
maintenance needs, accommodate anticipated demand levels, and still provides short-term
and annual noise relief to surrounding neighborhoods. PRAS incorporates a true planning
capability for controllers, increased software flexibility to handle future conditions,
and a technique for controller workload required to change runway configurations.
Phase 3 features automatically recognize changes in current or forecast weather, demand projections, and
field condition changes; they also enhanced monthly and annual reports on runway use and
compliance with established noise goals.
|FTA developed two simulation models to evaluate the
passenger and baggage flows at Boston's International Terminal (Terminal E). The
departures model included security, hold areas, boarding gates and concession areas; this
was used to evaluate the potential benefits that might be realized by several proposed
alternative rearrangements of the security facilities. A detailed simulation of the
international arrivals included arrival gates, Federal Inspection Services (FIS), baggage
claim and customs. It was used to examine changes in the procedures for FIS and for
baggage claim device assignments.
Traffic Control Projects
Traffic Flow Management
|Under contract to the Volpe National Transportation Systems
Center, FTA is investigating decision support tools for Tactical Flow Management
based on TFAS (Traffic Flow Automation System). Current TFAS research
focuses on the feasibility of coupling the trajectory prediction methods
of CTAS (Center
TRACON Automation System)
with the ETMS (Enhanced Traffic Management System)
currently used in the field to assist FAA Traffic Flow Managers and
Planners. It will provide an
improvement in the prediction of future arrival times (particularly for
climbing and descending aircraft). Advanced Decision Support Tools
for Traffic Flow Management
should allow rapid re-planning of efficient new traffic flows in the event
of errors in forecasting the movement of severe weather, or when ATC
equipment fails, or runways are changed causing a transient in airport
Part 77 Analysis
|FTA was retained by the developers of a proposed new
high-rise office complex in Boston to evaluate potential airspace
obstruction issues. A critical review of the FAA airspace analysis was
performed, and additional analysis of fleet performance and procedures
conducted to refute the designation of a hazard to air navigation.
|Air Traffic Control Seminar
|Prof. Emeritus Simpson presented a series of
lectures for M.I.T. Lincoln Laboratory personnel on ATC concepts and procedures.
|IFR Wake Vortex Safety
|FTA was contracted by the Air Transport Association
of America to prepare an independent critical review of the FAA's decision in
1996, to reclassify the weight categories which govern the IFR wake turbulence separations
between aircraft. This reclassification resulted in a loss of runway capacity and severe
delays during poor weather at major US airports. FTA's report contained a number of
specific recommendations to improve the safety and efficiency of future operations of the
ATC system in handling wake turbulence.
|New Concepts for ATC
|FTA was part of the Honeywell team researching
advanced air transportation technologies (AATT) for NASA. This study identified promising
elements for the modernization of the global air transportation system. Specifically, FTA
provided functional descriptions of advanced ATM system concepts, as well as general
consulting help on cost/benefit studies of satellite-based air navigation services.
|Wake Vortex System
|FTA participated with the VNTSC team on preliminary
planning for Wake Vortex Strategies that could provide increased capacity at U.S. airports
having closely-spaced parallel runways. This effort included general review of WVS
concepts and constraints, and initial development of evaluation criteria. A significant
portion of the Phase 1 activity was devoted to identifying and evaluating the potential
benefits of WVS concepts for reduced separations on a single runway. Phase 2 focused on
two of the most promising Wake Vortex Strategies, as applied to Boston's Logan
International Airport and St. Louis International Airport. These involved the
implementation of 1½-mile diagonal separations between aircraft on approaches to
closely-spaced parallel runways. Two of FTA's computer simulation models were applied.
RUNCAP produced estimates of the capacity for the WVS runway configurations and DELAYSIM
provided estimates of the benefits of the WVS for reducing aircraft delays.
|Under subcontract to the U.S.A.F., FTA worked on
the development of a proof-of-concept demonstration of the Automated
Tactical Aircraft Launch & Recovery System, which is intended to
provide automated ATC capability in a future tactical combat situation using artificial
intelligence techniques. FTA developed ATC algorithms for the automated control of
returning fighter aircraft, including flight path generation, diversion, separation
assurance, and other functions. The ATALARS algorithms were developed for implementation
in a knowledge-based system.
|FTA provided technical and modeling support to the USN and
Georgia Tech for development of the Marine Air Traffic Control and Landing
System. The initial effort entailed in-depth investigation and system
specification for automated decision making for control of traffic in the
terminal area. An Automated Management and Control system concept was
developed, and automation functions required to implement such a system
were identified and analyzed. Theoretical algorithms were evolved to
optimize the operation of the ATC system and to generate flight plans for
arriving and departing aircraft. Prototype software for these functions
was designed and implemented. To test these functions, a realistic
terminal area ATC simulation facility (TASIM) was developed, which
contains a man-machine interface with multiple controller positions and
real-time processing. A micro computer version of TASIM was developed to
permit analyses of the dynamic logic of the radar tracker, as well as
hazard-detection and conflict alert functions. The computer models have
been used for extensive evaluation and enhancement of these and various
other MATCALS automated features.
Projects and Other Studies
|FTA is preparing aviation activity forecasts for the
Wisconsin State Airport System Plan airports. The forecasts will project
commercial enplanements, cargo and mail volume, based aircraft, and
aircraft operations for the next 30 years. Multiple forecast methodologies
are being employed, including time-series, regression and share analysis.
A consolidated Excel spreadsheet model will be developed to present the
forecast results and to allow WisDOT personnel to update them in the
|FTA teamed with Economic Development Research Group and
Cambridge Systematics to update the Wisconsin Department of
Transportation's (WisDOT) Airport Benefit-Cost System. The database
system is designed to assist WisDOT with statewide airport
investment planning. The system determines the economic impact of
an airport on both the surrounding community and the state as a
whole, and can also be used to analyze the costs and benefits of
individual airport projects.
|FTA was retained by the Federal Reserve Bank of
Boston (FRBB) to analyze the noise impacts of moving the Blue Zone hub of the
Interdistrict Transportation System from Teterboro to Philadelphia. FTA performed on-site
noise measurements at sensitive locations near the airfield and calibrated the noise
'footprint' of the Mitsubishi MU-2 aircraft. The FAA's Integrated Noise Model and FTA's
ground noise model were used to estimate the incremental impacts of the ITS hub operations
on the neighboring communities. Two alternative scenarios were examined: using the short
cross-wind runway for ITS landings and takeoffs, and using the main parallel runways also
used by larger jet carriers.
|Pease Part 150 Study
|As the prime contractor to the Pease Development
Authority, FTA assembled a team to perform a Part 150 Noise Compatibility Study for the
Pease International Tradeport. FTA inventoried operations and facilities at Pease, and
prepared forecasts of several possible future scenarios of air transportation activity at
Pease. Noise exposure maps and land use patterns were projected and analyzed. A range of
mitigation measures to reduce future noise impacts were identified and evaluated. A noise
compatibility program and implementation plan were prepared to guide the airport's future
development. A public process based on extensive community involvement was a key component
of this project. The Part 150 Study was submitted to and approved by the FAA.
|Airline Property Tax
|FTA and Economic Development Research (EDR) were
contracted by the Wisconsin Department of Transportation (WisDOT) to develop forecasts of
airline property taxes. These taxes are the main source for state aviation funding, and
reliable forecasts of future year tax revenues are required for WisDOT to make planning
and funding decisions. The tax revenues are dependent upon the total value of each airline
operating in Wisconsin, the allocation of that value to the state, and the statewide
average tax rate. FTA developed time-series, scenario-based, and behavior-based forecasts
of the Wisconsin airline value allocation for the next ten years. These forecasts allowed
EDR to estimate the range of total airline property tax revenue WisDOT could expect in the
|In response to a major air carrier's concern about
a proposed new parallel runway at St. Louis, FTA conducted an in-depth analysis of the
airport's new Master Plan. FTA applied the FLAPS and DELAYSIM models to complete a
capacity and delay analysis of several runway configurations. An analysis of crossings of
the proposed runway by taxiing aircraft was also performed to determine the need for a new
parallel taxiway which was not included in the Master Plan.
|CA High Speed Rail
|FTA was a member of the study team that examined
the benefits of alternative routes for a high-speed rail system between northern and
southern California. In a relatively modest scope, FTA provided inputs and review of the
current and future aviation system with which the proposed ground services would compete
|For the VNTSC, FTA completed a requirements
analysis for a specialized helipad facility. The pad was to be located on a slope, from
which helicopters would be towed into a hanger. FTA provided a complete list of mandatory
requirements, possible options, and cost estimates for lighting, approach aids,
navigational aids and safety equipment. The study also included a description of several
possible methods of moving helicopters between the pad and the enclosed hanger.
|Washington State Trans.
|FTA participated in the evaluation of Air
Transportation Policy Options in the state of Washington for the AIRTRAC. Air
transportation activity, plans and issues in Washington's Central Puget Sound Region were
reviewed. The feasibility of several alternative policy options for air transportation
were evaluated, including future high-capacity aircraft, reliever airports, and wayport
|NYC E.60th Street Heliport
|For the City of New York, FTA and Edwards and
Kelcey Engineers, Inc., teamed to complete a new master plan for the East 60th Street
Heliport. FTA's role included the investigation of alternative arrival and departure
routes, flight path capacity, airspace requirements, and the provision of a recommended
heliport financial program and fee schedule.
|Second Major Airport Study
|FTA was a key member of the consulting team
selected by the Massachusetts Aeronautics Commission to conduct the preliminary site
selection for a second major airport in the Boston region. The study defined the site
selection criteria, convened a review panel, generated the inventory of potential sites,
and consecutively narrowed the options to form a short list of candidate sites for
subsequent decision-making. The evaluation examined the feasibility and desirability of
potential locations based on operational, market catchment, environmental, economic,
engineering and other factors. FTA's primary responsibilities included relative market
demand for alternative sites, preliminary economic benefits, and assessment of airspace
and other aeronautical issues.
|Pease AFB Redevelopment
|FTA supported the Bechtel team in preparing a
comprehensive redevelopment plan for the Pease AFB when the USAF retired the base in 1991.
The redevelopment team examined a wide range of aviation and non-aviation uses for the
facility. FTA's principal role in the project involved the assessment of the range of
aviation demand over the next twenty years. Preliminary forecasts of general aviation,
commuter, air carrier, cargo, maintenance, and special purpose activities were prepared
for each of several development alternatives.
|FAA STPG Human Factors
|FTA provided support for a Scientific Task Planning
Group (STPG) set up by the Federal Aviation Administration with the purpose of developing
a national plan for aviation human factors research. This STPG concentrated on human
factors issues in air traffic control. Issues that were investigated include impacts of
automation on controllers, controller behavior, selection/training/certification of ATC
personnel, and safety monitoring of ATC activities. In a series of meetings, specific
human factors problems were identified. Ongoing research was documented, and a course of
action was recommended. The final report was then incorporated into the National Human
Factors Plan, which was presented to the public by the FAA Administrator at a conference
dedicated to this effort.
|Manhattan Tilt Rotor Study
|FTA conducted a feasibility study and preliminary
design of a Manhattan vertiport for civil tiltrotor service. Tiltrotor aircraft
characteristics and vertiport requirements were defined, and a screening process was used
to identify promising sites in Manhattan. The market demand for tiltrotor service was
estimated through the year 2015. The demand analysis included an investigation of the
relative demand for tiltrotor services, to help identify the optimum site from a demand
perspective. A significant aspect of the study involved designing ATC procedures to allow
tiltrotor operations to access a Manhattan site without conflicting with the conventional
traffic in the congested New York metroplex. Three sites were identified for detailed
analysis, including passenger demand, conceptual layouts, airspace and ATC procedures,
terminal plans and cost estimates, environmental effects, and regulatory issues.
|JFK Facility Plan
|FTA worked with Thompson Consultants International
to prepare a new facility master plan for TWA's international and domestic terminals at
JFK Airport in New York. The study team conducted an analysis of current facilities and
operations. FTA prepared a detailed simulation of passenger and baggage flows through the
terminals to evaluate existing congestion and level of service standards. Working with
TCI, FTA used the simulation model to evaluate and refine new terminal design concepts and
a phased terminal development program compatible with future TWA forecasts and the
|FTA was retained by the Federal Reserve Bank of Boston to
provide technical assistance with the Interdistrict Transportation System
(ITS). ITS is a network of hub-and-spoke systems that transport the
Federal Bank's canceled checks and other time-critical financial
instruments around the country overnight. FTA analyzed the schedule,
routing and payload requirements for ITS to establish the aircraft
specifications for each of the hub-and-spoke systems and for the inter-hub
connecting routes. FTA assisted the Bank in evaluating the proposals of
prospective fleet operators, and prepared expert witness testimony to
defend the Bank against legal challenges.