Summaries of FTA's global (non-US) projects are listed below.  The projects are categorized by geographic location: Australia, the Pacific Rim, the Middle East, and Western Europe

Australia

KSA ATC Flow Priority

1998

The Long Term Operating Plan for Sydney Kingsford Smith Airport (LTOP) recommended procedures to minimize airport noise impacts and to distribute them in an equitable manner. Opponents criticized removal of the bias for departures to the south over Botany Bay for increasing the noise impacts on some communities. AirServices Australia (the Australian ATC organization) engaged FTA to conduct airfield modeling of the LTOP procedures and to independently assess the potential impacts that the southbound preference may have on the noise sharing goals of the LTOP. FTA examined the original LTOP operating procedures as well as modified procedures using the DELAYSIM model to estimate RMO utilization and delay impacts of the modifications.
KSA Airfield Modeling

1997

In response to a new government initiative, AirServices Australia developed the Long Term Operating Plan for Sydney airport (LTOP), which recommended new runway operations and flight tracks to minimize the noise impacts of KSA and to distribute those noise impacts in an equitable manner. The LTOP also recommended a number of airfield infrastructure improvements deemed necessary for successful implementation of the plan. As the operator of Sydney Airport, the Federal Airports Corporation (FAC) engaged FTA and Airplan, Pty. to conduct airfield modeling of the proposed LTOP improvements and to independently assess and prioritize their benefits. FTA's first task was a critical review of the Saber Design Technology Capacity Study on which the LTOP was based; we discovered several flaws in the analysis that caused the results to be misleading or inconsistent. FTA & Airplan together prepared detailed simulation inputs. While Airplan conducted taxiway simulation of the proposed improvements with TAAMS, FTA served as critical advisor and prepared an executive summary of the analysis. FTA also examined the effect of the proposed LTOP modifications on runway capacity and delays using FLAPS and DELAYSIM. The results showed that the LTOP taxiway elements have only a small impact on runway capacities, but the LTOP procedures provide a small delay reduction, and also serve to reduce the in-flight noise impacts over the northern communities. It was concluded that capacity increases in those configurations which use the east-west runway are essential for achieving the movement distribution targets of LTOP. FTA also identified and analyzed additional capacity enhancement measures and operating procedures that would give controllers additional flexibility to produce more equitable sharing of noise impacts while further reducing delays. If an operations cap were implemented in combination with capacity initiatives that gave controllers multiple available RMO at that capped level, KSA would no longer be restricted to the parallel runways under high demand conditions, and noise impacts could be shared even as demand continues to grow. The quickest and most cost-effective approach to improving noise sharing at KSA would be installation of a real-time dynamic computerized system (a la PRAS) to assist the air traffic controllers in selecting the best runways for meeting operational needs as well as helping achieve environmental goals.
Sydney Delays

1990

As part of the Environmental Impact Statement for the proposed parallel runway at Sydney Australia's KSA International Airport, FTA conducted a comparative study of runway delays. Using the DELAYS analytical model, runway delays were calculated for each combination of runway configuration and weather condition; these were combined based on runway availability and weather occurrence to predict annual delays. For comparison, the annual delays at Boston Logan and London Gatwick were also estimated.
Sydney Access Control

1989

In order to cope with increasing demand at Sydney Kingsford-Smith Airport until the third runway can become operational, the Government is considering the imposition of access constraints. The Federal Airports Corporation retained FTA to provide assistance in planning for an access control system. FTA reviewed the "generic" approaches to airport access control and evaluated specific existing and proposed systems for their applicability at Sydney. A multi-phase program was recommended, beginning with peak-hour pricing and followed by a quota system.
Sydney K-S Capacity

1988

FTA conducted a detailed airfield capacity study of the Kingsford-Smith International Airport in Sydney, Australia, for the Australian Federal Airports Corporation (FAC). A careful examination of airport demand, weather, operating procedures & policies was performed to identify the various runway use configurations. The FLAPS simulation model and RUNCAP analytical were employed to determine the airport capacity under existing conditions, as well as for several alternative scenarios including new runways, reduced separations and revised noise policies. In the second phase of the study, the FLAPS model was used to estimate the capacity of the proposed third runway & taxiway configuration that was recently approved by the Government. The FLAPS model was installed for in-house use by the FAC.
Europe
KLM

2002

FTA supported KLM in its litigation with Alitalia concerning a connecting hub at Milan's Malpensa airport. 1) To show that longer term competitiveness and growth of a connecting hub at Malpensa were materially affected by the initial Bersani Decree that allowed Milan's Linate airport to remain open to many European cities and airlines; 2) To explain the potential impact of the Bersani decree on the Malpensa Hub; 3) To assess studies which try to measure the revenue/cost differences of the opening of Linate .
Schiphol Noise Capacity

1998

A 1996 law by the Dutch government to limit the noise generated by aircraft operations at Schiphol Airport has effectively imposed a restriction on the airport's operational capacity that is below its physical capacity. Amsterdam Airport Schiphol (AAS) commissioned FTA to conduct an analysis of Schiphol's capacity in light of the new noise zone limitations. Specifically, FTA was responsible for identifying and assessing operational/technical measures to increase capacity and/or to limit noise. This study involved a comprehensive review of noise-capacity issues and some preliminary analyses of promising concepts at Schiphol. It was aimed at identifying areas of further investigation to guide AAS planning for the development of Schiphol and, more generally, air transport activities in the Netherlands over the coming decades.
Stockholm MP Review

1995

FTA played a major role in NACO's review of Swedish plans for future developments at Stockholm's Arlanda Airport, including the addition of a third runway. FTA examined the effects of environmental constraints on airspace issues, performed a runway capacity analysis, and evaluated the proposed taxiway layout. Recommendations for improving the Master Plan design were developed.
5th Runway Access

1993

For the Airport Authority of Schiphol Airport in Amsterdam, FTA evaluated the potential impacts of adding a fifth runway on taxi operations. Several alternatives were proposed including new taxiways which would not require crossing of active runways. FTA's taxiway simulation (TAXSIM) was used to evaluate the effect on operational capacity of each alternative. Efforts included analysis of runway crossing procedures used by several U.S. airports. Additionally, FTA applied the ICAO Collision Risk Model in an effort to define the risk of overflying a taxiing aircraft.
NLR Model Review

1993

In conjunction with the Schiphol safety analysis, FTA completed an in-depth evaluation of risk modeling performed by the Dutch National Laboratory (NLR). The intended purpose of the NLR model was to demonstrate the potential third-party risk associated with Schiphol Airport in light of existing and future operations. FTA found that the model failed to recognize that, historically, airports with a greater number of operations are generally associated with lower accident rates. Additionally, the model did not consider the possible effects that new technology, procedures or policies may have on accident rates. Finally, the NLR model was calibrated using worldwide crash data, ignoring the significant difference in incident rates between first-world countries and those in the less developed nations of the world.
Schiphol Safety Audit

1992

In cooperation with the RAND Corporation, FTA completed a safety analysis of airport and air traffic control operations at Schiphol Airport in the Netherlands. This included detailed evaluations of existing and proposed procedures. The primary goal of the analysis was to determine if the airport could expand operations in the future while, at the same time, not increase risk to third parties off of the airport. Other airports in Europe were visited to compare their level of operations and procedures to those of Schiphol. Several recommendations were made to improve the potential for continuing safe operations into the future considering increased demand on the airport.
Liverpool Master Plan

1990

With the Netherlands Airport Consultants B.V. (NACO), FTA participated in the master plan study for Liverpool Airport in the United Kingdom. The plan calls for the phased expansion of the airport from its current single runway configuration into a major international hub with independent parallel operations. Work conducted by FTA included: evaluation of several runway system alternatives from an airspace/ATC viewpoint; development of initial arrival and departure routes for the selected configuration; an initial assessment of the potential ATC issues facing the coordinated operation of Liverpool Airport and Manchester Airport (20 miles to the east); an overall assessment of the problems associated with introducing another major airport into the United Kingdom's airspace system; and investigation of the potential consequences of installing a microwave landing system at Liverpool.

In addition FTA translated the initial routes into standard terminal arrival routes (STARs) and standard instrument departures (SIDs) that are compatible with Manchester operations. Recommendations for changes in current Manchester procedures were also given. ATC strategies for the concurrent operation of both airports including airspace design and management, flight procedures, and coordination were suggested.

Middle East

Haifa ILS

1996

For the Israel Airports Authority, FTA completed a TERPS analysis of several future scenarios under consideration for Haifa Airport. This included development of conceptual ILS and missed approach procedures along with detailed analysis of the associated obstacle limitation surface. The final report included recommendations on the runway length, IFR capability, and placement of navaids.
UNIMEG Aircraft Analysis

1989

In a joint venture with the International Management, Engineering and Planning Corporation (IMPEC) of Cairo, FTA evaluated the utility of the acquisition of several Soviet aircraft by this Egyptian firm. A comparative assessment of the characteristics of the Soviet models and their closest Western built counterparts was performed. Several opportunities for use of the Soviet aircraft were studied: resale of the aircraft to Western or Third World countries; inauguration of a new Egyptian air carrier; and joint agreements with a European carrier that would provide access to the ECAC by operating from a base other than Cairo. Among the principal difficulties examined were the issues of Western airworthiness certification and availability of parts, spares and maintenance.
Pacific Rim
Seoul Airspace Analysis

1995

 

FTA participated in the detailed modeling and analysis of operations for the future Inchon International Airport under construction to serve Seoul, Korea. FTA's role consisted of the development of conceptual arrival and departure procedures for several study scenarios. This included operations for a single runway, closely-spaced runways, and independent parallel runways. For each scenario, "minimum change" and "ultimate" options were prepared. Minimum change alternatives provide for the new airport with the least possible impact on existing facilities such as Kimpo and Osan airports. Ultimate options provide for the optimal operation of the new airport while imposing some constraints on operations at adjacent facilities. A "reunification" option was also examined which removed the constraint of the border with North Korea just a few miles from the airfield.
Malaysian Air Space Review

1993

FTA was engaged to conduct an independent review and analysis of the airspace and ATC design for the proposed new international airport at Kuala Lumpur. Over a period of two years, FTA advised Government officials on the technical validity of recommended airspace design concepts and ATC procedures, and verified compliance with international standards and the Terms of Reference of the Master Plan.
SBIA ATC/Airspace Design

1992

In cooperation with Netherlands Airport Consultants B.V., FTA was selected to complete a Master Plan update study for the Bangkok Second International Airport (SBIA). FTA's role included an analysis of the ATC/airspace system currently in place for Don Muang Airport, and the development of new or improved systems based on previous work completed for the government of Thailand. This included the examination of traffic flows, both historical and predicted, as well as the evaluation of several proposed runway configurations in terms of impacts on airspace structure and ATC procedures. The final product of this study was the development of recommended Standard Terminal Arrival Routes (STARs), Standard Instrument Departure procedures (SIDs), airspace design features, and ATC procedures for the integration of the SBIA into the current and predicted air transportation system.
CKS Master Plan

1992

FTA prepared a detailed demand forecast to guide the update of the Chiang Kai-Shek International Airport (Taipei) Master Plan. The planning horizon was extended to the year 2020 and a range of possible future roles for the airport were identified. FTA conducted a comprehensive analysis of passenger and cargo demand for each future scenario. A scenario-based forecast methodology was used taking into account macro-economic and regional parameters such as population growth rates, measures of GDP, CPI, and the operational characteristics of the airport and region. Both annual and peak period traffic were projected, to provide inputs for the facility requirements and sizing tasks. The forecast was implemented as a system of linked computer spreadsheets. The software and documentation were delivered to the Client for application to future planning studies.

FTA performed a comprehensive review and redesign of the airspace and ATC procedures for the Taipei area as part of the Chiang Kai Shek Master Plan Update by the Netherlands Airports Consultants team. The update of the airspace and ATC plans built on the existing structure, but considered several alternative scenarios for the coming decades. The effort included: an updated inventory; evaluation of alternative operating scenarios; revision of the airspace structure; preliminary design of new or modified ATC procedures; and preparation of a computer simulation for evaluating airport/ATC modifications.

FTA also prepared a detailed demand forecast to guide the update of the Chiang Kai-shek International Airport (Taipei) Master Plan. The planning horizon was extended to the year 2020 and a range of possible future roles for the airport were identified. A comprehensive analysis of passenger and cargo demand for each future scenario was implemented as a system of linked computer spreadsheets. The software and documentation were delivered to the Client for application to future planning studies.
Chek Lap Kok Master Plan

1990

In cooperation with Greiner-Maunsell, FTA participated in the master plan for Chek Lap Kok Airport in Hong Kong. FTA was tasked with complete responsibility for the definition of the air traffic control system for the Hong Kong Terminal Control Area (TMA). This includes the design of approach, departure, missed approach, and holding procedures; the definition of the required radar, navigational aids, and communications facilities; and development of optimized layouts for the ATC tower, radar, and related facilities. Initial efforts included the investigation of runway system options for the new airport.

FTA was a member of the Greiner-Maunsell joint venture team that developed the New Airport Master Plan for the Hong Kong replacement airport. FTA assisted Greiner in evaluating alternative runway configurations for the new airport, and conducted a preliminary determination of the airspace and ATC requirements. In the second phase, FTA developed detailed approach and departure procedures, standard arrival and departure routes, airspace layout, navigation and surveillance requirements, controller procedures, operation center requirements, preliminary plans for transferring operations from Kai Tak to Chek Lap Kok, safeguarding measures, and other related issues. A microcomputer version of the ICAO Collision Risk Model was developed to assess the unique terrain constraints of Hong Kong on the ILS approach procedures.
Hong Kong Alt Airport Rep Site

1988

With NACO, FTA assisted in an alternative site selection study for a new Hong Kong International Airport. A preliminary airspace design was performed for several potential sites in a specified search area to assist in the selection of three short-listed locations. More detailed analyses were then conducted for the short-listed sites, including arrival, departure & missed approach procedures, obstacle assessments, restricted areas, political boundaries, etc. The airspace/ATC results were then considered with other factors in the selection of a final site for more detailed design work. FTA provided an extensive airspace management system plan for the final site including conceptual STARs, SIDs, suggested airspace sectorization, recommended ATC procedures, and IFR control room layouts.

   

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